Top10VPN conducted the research towards the end of 2021 by examining the top parental control apps available on the Google Play store.

The aim of these apps is to protect minors from potentially harmful or explicit content by prohibiting access to it. Websites such as Chatroulette, 4Chan and Only Fans were permitted by the apps, though others such as Stonewall, The Trevor Project and Switchboard LGBT were forbidden.

11 out of the 12 tested restricted access to at least one website in the aforementioned categories, the study found. MMGuardian and ESET Parental Control were determined to be the apps blocking the most content with 14 of 19 sites tested being inaccessible.